Multiverse. There is a lot of talk about it again after the release of the new trailer for Spiderman No Way Home.


Obviously the favorite Spiderman survey starts:

Tobey Maguire

Andrew Garfield

or Tom Holland?

Let’s hope it doesn’t end up in a mess like Dark

The term was first used by William James in 1895 but did not refer to other possible universes:
visible nature is all plasticity and indifference, a multiverse, as one might called it, and not a universe.

Nature therefore.

Alternative worlds are rather present in the fiction of Jorge Luis Borges and H. G. Wells which I have already talked about.

The authorship of the thought on “parallel dimensions,” or universes coexisting and separated in space-time terms is instead attributed to Hugh Everett III controversial character who, however, did not have much consideration.

Subsequently the concept evolved into the so-called string theory: a sort of fusion between quantum mechanics and Albert Einstein’s theory of relativity.

The definition of “strings” derives from the idea of strings which, subjected to particular vibrations corresponding to particles with defined properties such as mass and charge, give rise to matter and energy.

Just like it was music.

Isn’t it fascinating?

Going back to conception in this case is a little more … swinging … but the contribution of Gabriele Veneziano is undoubted. 

From strings to get to the multiverse we need to consider Alan Guth’s theory of inflation and Andrei Linde’s new inflation not to be confused with the inflation that hinders us every day in this precise dimension.

Since the only thing clear in my mind is the chaos theory, I really like this video that shows the humanity of these unattainable minds and reminds us that the results can come even after “30 years” but that we must not give up.

Other times, however, the wait goes further, as in the case of A smooth exit from eternal inflation written in collaboration with Thomas Hertog but published after the death of Stephen Hawking, which Nick had mentioned in this interesting comment  about Schrödinger’s Cat

In another dimension… who knows, maybe we can imagine it like this

And you?
How do you imagine any other dimensions?

Do you ever think you have a Doppelgänger i.e. a person who has had exactly the same life experiences as you, but perhaps at this very moment he makes a decision that you would not choose?



Imagine you sit down and pick up your favorite book. You look at the image on the front cover, run your fingers across the smooth book sleeve, and smell that familiar book smell as you flick through the pages. To you, the book is made up of a range of sensory appearances.

With an opening like this, what do you think?

I was immediately attracted to it and continued reading:

But you also expect the book has its own independent existence behind those appearances. So when you put the book down on the coffee table and walk into the kitchen, or leave your house to go to work, you expect the book still looks, feels, and smells just as it did when you were holding it.

Have you ever thought otherwise?
Where is this question leading us?
If I had not “spoiled” through the title, I would almost leave in suspense curious about your answer.

The article, which I recommend you continue here is titled “Is Reality a Game of Quantum Mirrors? A New Theory Helps Explain Schrödinger’s Cat.”

Also thanks to a quote from the new book by Carlo Rovelli it is about this theory useful to understand in a very simplified way the concept of the uncertainty principle of quantum mechanics.

Off course this information always comes to me from Massimo, because I am rather in chaos already considering only one dimension … yet in this case, even a less brilliant mind like mine can grasp this concept in a basic way.

Research from Yale University has been published on Nature mainly by Zlatko Minev according to which it is possible to predict the quantum leap and therefore to know before opening the box.

But regardless of this I would like to dwell on the idea of two different opposing versions, yet both true.

The cat is alive and dead at the same time.

A bit like a sort of extreme take on the famous Sliding Doors.

Finding myself in a particular moment of life, with the aggravating circumstance of being a chronic indecisive, I will inevitably have to make crucial decisions.

Are you resolute or recriminating?
Do you attribute events to chance, to fate, or do you ever think that something could have gone differently?
The typical question what if… is it just a mental journey for you?

Are you a fatalist or would you rather be able to close the lid of the box to save the cat?



Glyphosate is a molecule of the family of amino acids, discovered by Monsanto in the early 1970s.
It consists of an amino acid, glycine and a phosphoric acid molecule joined together by a nitrogen bridge.

And it’s the active ingredient in Roundup:
when sprayed on the leaves of the plants, it penetrates through their green parts, is absorbed and then diffused – technically it is said to be translocated – through the tissues and transported from the sap to the roots and organs of propagation and reproduction of the plant (rhizomes, stolons , bulbs, bulbils). Once penetrated, glyphosate inhibits the production of an enzyme called EPSP synthetase, which in turn prevents the plant from producing the aromatic amino acids essential for its growth and development.

Monsanto started selling Roundup in 1974.

At the beginning of the 70s the population had 3 billion 682 million people, destined to reach 4 billion by 1975.

In 1992 the patent expires and Monsanto is ready with more effective new products.
A progressive evolution of the Roundup therefore begins, which becomes an increasingly concentrated product.

With the arrival of the new millennium, the need to limit disposal costs is added to the need for concentration, and both lead to the new Transorb technology based on a mixture of surfactants that reduces the interval between application and sowing in just 6 hours. .

But the escalation continues: Roundup 450plus, Roundup 360power, and then Platinum in 2013.

March 4, 2013 is the date at the bottom of the letter that Marion Copley, a biology graduate with a master’s degree in animal husbandry and veterinary science, serving the EPA’s toxicology department for 30 years, writes to her colleague Jess Rowland nicknamed “Monsanto’s mole” “:

Since I left the Agency with cancer, I have studied the tumor process extensively and I have some mechanism comments which may be very valuable to CARC based on my decades of pathology experience. I’ll pick one chemical to demonstrate my points.

Glyphosate was originally designed as a chelating agent and 1 strongly believe that is the identical process involved in its tumor formation, which is highly supported by the literature.

-Chelators inhibit apoptosis, the process by which our bodies kill tumor cells.

-Chelators are endocrine disruptors, involved in tumorigenesis.

-Glyphosate induces lymphocyte proliferation.

-Glyphosate induces free radical formation.

-Chelators inhibit free radical scavenging enzymes requiring Zn, Mn or Cu for activity (i.e. SODs.

-Chelators bind zinc, necessary for immune system functio.

-Glyphosate is genotoxic, a key cancer mechanis.

-Chelators inhibit DNA repair enzymes requiring metal cofactor.

-Chelators bind Ca, Zn, Mg, etc to make foods deficient for these essential nutrient.

-Chelators bind calcium necessary for calcineurin-mediated immune respons.

-Chelators often damage the kidneys or pancreas, as glyphosate does, a mechanism to tumor formation -Kidney/pancreas damage can lead to clinical chemistry changes to favor tumor growth.

-Glyphosate kills bacteria in the gut and the gastrointestinal system is 80% of the immune system.

-Chelators suppress the immune system making the body susceptible to tumor.

Previously, CARC concluded that glyphosate was a “possible human carcinogen”. The kidney pathology in the animal studies would lead to tumors with other mechanisms listed above. Any one of these mechanisms alone listed can cause tumors, but glyphosate causes all of them simultaneously. It is essentially certain that glyphosate causes cancer. With all of the evidence listed above, the CARC category should be changed to “probable human carcinogen”. Blood cells arc most exposed to chelators, if any study shows proliferation of lymphocytes, then that is confirmatory that glyphosate is a carcinogen.

Jess, you and I have argued many times on CARC. You often argued about topics outside of your knowledge, which is unethical. Your trivial MS degree from 1971 Nebraska is far outdated, thus CARC science is 10 years behind the literature in mechanisms. For once in your life, listen to me and don’t play your political conniving games with the science to favor the registrants. For once do the right thing and don’t make decisions based on how it affects your bonus. You and Anna Lowit intimidated staff on CARC and changed MI ARC and IIASPOC final reports to favor industry. Chelators clearly disrupt calcium signaling, a key signaling pathway in all cellos and mediates tumor progression. Greg Ackerman is supposed to be our expert on mechanisms, but he never mentioned any of these concepts at CARC and when I tried to discuss it with him he put me off. Is Greg playing your political games as well, incompetent or does he have some conflict of interest of some kind? Your Nebraska colleague took industry funding, he clearly has a conflict of interest. Just promise me not to ever let Anna on the CARC committee, her decisions don’t make rational sense. If anyone in OPP is taking bribes, it is her.

I have cancer and I don’t want these serious issues in MED to go unaddressed before I go to my grave. I have done my duty.
Marion Copley March 4, 2013

This page was created in her memory.

The public debate on carcinogenic risks related to glyphosate begins only two years after her death.

In 2016, in fact, the gardener Dewayne Johnson, following a diagnosis of non-Hodgkin lymphoma, filed a lawsuit against Monsanto for using Roundup.

Meanwhile Bayer acquires Monsanto.

In October 2018, the popular jury sentenced Bayer and $ 250 million in damages for punitive damages + 39 for damages.
The sentence is then reduced to 78 million in total.

In 2020 Bayer entered into a record deal of over $ 10 billion in plea bargaining for tens of thousands of lawsuits filed for glyphosate-related diseases.

However, the Roundup may continue to be sold.

Today the population has practically doubled since 1975.

Certainly these multinationals speculate and even if ethically questionable progress is unstoppable.

The agri-food market, however, must meet an ever-increasing demand that goes hand in hand and a general impoverishment: many people struggle a quadrant far from the accounts and therefore makes the way of the need to spend as little as possible. Market demand often involves low-cost food, obviously to the detriment of quality and health itself.

So the problem grows and evolves, just like Roundup …

The seeds of life are not what they once were
Mother Nature and God don’t own them anymore

So it ends The Monsanto Years
by Neil Young

PM 2.5

PM 2.5

PM comes from Particulate Matter: and consists of airborne particulate matter, more precisely, according to the definition of the Ministry of the Environment it represents the set of solid and liquid atmospheric particles suspended in ambient air. The term PM2.5 identifies particles with a diameter of less than or equal to 2.5 µm … from here on, however, I dissociate from the description: these particles are too easily incorporated into the PM10 values, especially in the detection ratios, when instead the difference it is substantial.
I always quote verbatim from the Essia i.e. Effects on the Health of Air Pollution project: in particular, the smallest particles manage to penetrate deeper into the respiratory system. Hence, it is important to understand which and how many particles are able to penetrate the human body, how deep they manage to reach and what type of substances they can carry. For example, the toxicity of particulate matter, and therefore its ability to generate damage to health, can be amplified by the ability to absorb gaseous substances such as PAHs (Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons) and heavy metals, some of which are powerful carcinogens.
The significant relief of environmental pollution in relation to the onset of tumors is also the subject of the open letter published by Isde the increase in tumor incidence and chronic degenerative diseases that occur in the most polluted areas and at an increasingly early age affecting children, adolescents and young adults is the most striking aspect of the link between environment and health.
I disagree with the choice of the adjective: I find this aspect rather terrifying than striking.
Even the OMS declares that in the European Union only the finest particulate matter causes a loss of life expectancy of about 8,6 months.
In light of all this, it would be natural to think that given the high danger, strict monitoring is applied on the emissions of this fine particulate.
Unfortunately, on the other hand, in many cases it is not even distinguished from the PM10 and is very smoky, forgive the play on words, reporting the data of the relief that has a daily index: which oscillates between 9 and 8 while I’m writing, when the term of comparison is according to Ispra is an annual limit of 25 µm, among other things with a reference to 2010: it is difficult even to find updated information, I wonder why.
Personally I consider this topic of the utmost importance and I care about Lomellina: a land battered between mud and waste-to-energy plants, where livability is compromised.
In Italy there are 51 waste-to-energy plants, of which 29 only in northern Italy are reported by the Civil Protection specifying that the fumes generated are treated and purified.
Among other things, the results of a 2017 Inemar study indicates non-industrial combustion as the main responsible for the PM2.5 emission in Lombardy.
What does it consist of in practice? According to the classification “trade, residential, agriculture.”
To put it mildly: “Are we getting too hot?”
It would look just like this: in fact the concentrations are significantly higher in the winter months as visibly demonstrated in the EEA European Environment Agency graphs.
So waste-to-energy plants are innocent?
No, although over the years the incinerators have covered this “enhancement” with control and purification systems that have certainly reduced the percentage of incidence, a quantity of pollutants is still discharged into the atmosphere. The notorious nano-particles are as capable of easily entering our body and reaching blood, tissues and organs as they are partially able to escape the filtering or disposal systems, here you find an analysis about it.
And if you can solve the calculation of the daily / annual thresholds, you deserve a coffee!





“It is sometimes said that the flapping of a butterfly’s wings in one part of the world can cause a hurricane on the other side of the globe.”
This quote comes from the 2004 film The Butterfly Effect and is inspired by a theory taken up and debated in numerous areas.
Once again, as happened for the War of the Worlds: the inspiration comes from a science fiction novel, it is in fact Ray Bradbury who in his Sound of thunder attributes to the proper death of a butterfly during a journey through time, a variation of future events:

Eckels felt himself fall into a chair. He fumbled crazily at the thick slime on his boots. He held up a clod of dirt, trembling,
“No, it can’t be. Not a little thing like that. No!”
Embedded in the mud, glistening green and gold and black, was a butterfly, very beautiful and very dead.

Another coincidence, also in this case the story was broadcast by the BBC in 2011: here if you want to find the podcast (butterfly from about 35 minutes but I would advise you to listen to it all if you have time).
The butterfly symbol was taken up by Edward Lorenz, mathematician and meteorologist professor at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology in his 1963 paper for the New York Academy of Science and later in a 1979 lecture that went down in history.
In general, the butterfly effect belongs to quantum physics and more precisely to the basis of chaos theory.
Chaos is the most congenial aspect to me, but actually I didn’t want to talk about this … not this time, at least.
Antonietta Gatti is perhaps known to most as “the wife of” despite her respectable curriculum. Her skills add up over time, and I would list, almost a bit to summarize, this recognition: she has been awarded the title of Fellow of the International Union of Societies for Biomaterials Science and Engineering for her contribution to the progress of science. The various national societies of biomaterials and bioengineering have tens of thousands of members worldwide and the union of the various companies has elected Dr. Gatti to be part of the elite of scientists that consists of 32 members, and she was part of a parliamentary commission of inquiry as a responsible consultant. I know, difficult to read, but I found her report very interesting, perhaps because I live in a highly polluted area: here the mortality rate from tumors is terrible:
She deals with nanopathology or pathologies induced by micro and nano-sized particulate exposures, i.e. powders with dimensions less than 100nm (0.1 microns) but her research has become difficult due to the reduced availability of a suitable microscope.
Her flapping wings has not changed the world yet, but she has been able to reach the hearts of people who have made it possible to buy a new electron microscope with their donations.
Let us not stop at the fact that individually we cannot make a difference, let us not stop flying lightly on the difficulties, each of us can be the butterfly of change, let’s believe it, and do not let ourselves be crushed in the mud.



In the period in which we are living, among the numerous aspects that have taken the place of what was our daily life before, we also observe forms of behavior that are not exactly social, not to say friendly at all.
The idea that the true self of some people comes out only in emergencies or forcing, has always been latent. We come into contact with it through sayings or legends, just like that of the white wolf who is joy, love of peace, hope of serenity, humility, well-being, benevolence, empathy, generosity, truth, compassion and faith; or the black wolf who is anger, envy, jealousy, displeasure, regret, self-pity, greed, arrogance, guilt, resentment, inferiority, lies, false pride, superiority and ego.
The official origin is lost over time: the source has been handed down orally, but I found this Tale of the two wolves.
Each individual has within him both wolves and who will win is the one he decides to feed.
Therefore free will.
Concept as broad as it is debated.
Among the countless discussions that are lost in history, between nature and culture, between philosophy and science, one example comes out: the Stanford experiment.
In 1971 a young psychology professor from Stanford University: Philip Zimbardo recreated a prison in the basement of the university and selected 24 students from 70 candidates who had offered themselves, doing various tests that ascertained, for example, the absence of diseases, of addictions, and criminal records. These students were divided equally and randomly into two groups: prisoners and guards.
The aim was to demonstrate the impact of situational variables on human behavior.
The Lucifer effect, this is the definition given to the result of the experiment, interrupted after only 6 of the 14 days scheduled, due to harassing and violent incidents by the guards against prisoners.
This effect was also induced by de-individualization: the guards in the institutional role, behind uniform and mirrored glasses, which gave a sort of individual anonymity precisely, showed to let emerge their worst side.
Zimbardo himself said that he had taken the role of prison director and the accusation of having induced and piloted some dynamics, brought copious criticisms and tended to refute the validity of the experiment.
So now, seeing various types of outlets not only virtual, perhaps we can consider the fact that some people feel “prisoners” and others assume the role of “guards”.
What we can do is try to stay ourselves and not feed the bad wolf … and not even the Lucifer effect.

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